Diabetes Type II

Diabetes is an impairment in the way the body handles fats, proteins, and especially carbohydrates. This condition is as a result of a lack or partial lack in insulin production, or response to the insulin which is produced.

Diabetes is divided into insipidus and mellitus forms. The mellitus form is the most common, and it is further divided into type I and type II, and will be discussed in this article.

Type I is also referred to as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - IDDM, and type II as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - NIDDM. IDDM is a condition in patients for whom insulin therapy is essential because they do not produce insulin, or very little, the onset is usually during childhood. NIDDM might require insulin, but isn't absolutely necessary, onset is usually during adulthood.

The World Health Organization describes diabetes as a fasting venous plasma glucose concentration of 7.0 mmol/L or greater than 11 mmol/L two hours after a carbohydrate meal, even if fasting glucose concentration was normal.

Persons at risk at developing diabetes include those who have a strong family history of the condition, and those who might have developed the condition during pregnancy, also included as causes include obesity, unsatisfactory diet, sedentary lifestyle and increased urbanization.

The diagnosis of diabetes is done by considering the symptoms, and further by blood glucose testing.

  • Thirst, dry mouth
  • Increase amount of urine
  • Waking to pass urine
  • Tiredness, irritability
  • Recent change in weight
  • Blurring of vision
  • Nausea, headache
  • Predilection for sweet foods

The condition is managed by three methods diet and exercise, oral hypoglycaemic drugs and/or insulin. approximately 50% of new cases of diabetes can be controlled adequately by diet alone, 20-30% will need an oral hypoglycaemic drug, and 20-30% will require insulin.

  • Sweating
  • Trembling
  • Pounding Heart
  • Hunger
  • Anxiety
  • Confusion
  • Drowsiness
  • Speech difficulty
  • Inability to concentrate
  • in-coordination
  • Nausea
  • Tiredness
  • Headache

The complications of diabetes include impaired vision, kidney failure, sensation loss in fingers and toes, foot ulcers, and heart conditions. Diabetes can affect basically any organ within the body, and its improper management can lead to low glucose levels.

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